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Monday , 29th November 2021
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Nilgiri District Profile

  • The Nilgiris district located on the western part of Tamil Nadu and it is bounded by Karnataka State on the north, Erode District in the east, Coimbatore district on the southeast and by Kerala State on the south and west.
  • The District lies between 11º 10'00’’N to 11º43'00’’N Latitude, 76º14'00’’E to 77º02'00’’E Longitude and has an areal extent of 2549
  • There are 4 Blocks, 35 Villages and 1233 Habitations in the District.

Physiography and Drainage

  • The Nilgiris district, an entire hilly terrain district forms part of River Cauvery basin.
  • Many streams originate from hill slopes and have formed several rivers in the deep valley portions.
  • Many reservoirs are formed in the district to harness surface water and the water is used for drinking and power generation.
  • The surplus of Pykara reservoir flows towards the north as Pykara River which then flows towards the east in the name of river Moyar bordering the northern boundary of the district.
  • The surplus flow from Kundah and other reservoirs in the district joins the Bhavani River near Mettupalayam in Coimbatore district.


Rock Type Geological Formation
Hard Rock Charnockite, Gneiss, Quartzite


The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:

Acutal Rainfall in mm Normal Rainfall in mm
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1534.1 1960.4 1720.9 888.5 1469.1 1522.4


Type of Aquifer Unconfined to semi-confined aquifers.
Aquifer parameters    
Well yield in lpm    
Transmissivity (T) m 2/day    
Permeability (K) m/day    
Depth of Water level 5 m to 10m  

Ground Water Level:

No observation wells are being mentored by TWAD Board.


With a view to enhancing the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistance.

The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.

Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):

Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM) 118.94
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM) 11.31
Stage of Groundwater development (in %) 10 %
Categorization of District Safe

Categorization of Firkas:

The status of Categorization of Firkas as of March 2013 for the District in is shown below.

Categorisation based on Extraction (as on March 2013) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) -  
Critical (90%-100%) -  
Semi-Critical (70%-90%) -  
Safe (<70%) 15 Cherambadi, Coonoor, Devarshola,
Gudalur, Ithalar, Ketti, Kilkotagiri,
Kotagiri, Kundah, Melur, Nedugula,
Pandalur, Sholur, Thuneri,
Others (Poor& Saline) -  
Total 15  
Water supply status as on 1.4.2021

Rural Habitations

Total No. of Rural Habitations: 1282

Partially covered 0 (10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered 1282 (40 lpcd and above)

Urban Towns (Water Supply Status - 1.04.2018)

S.No Name of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1 Udagamandalam 88430 110
2 Coonoor 45494 76
3 Nalliyalam 44590 90
4 Gudalur 49535 86
Town Panchayats
1 Naduvattam 8505 86
2 O'Valley 21943 82
3 Jagathala 14383 73
4 Kothagiri 28207 71
5 Devarshola 24954 75
6 Bikketti 5864 90
7 Adikaratti 14178 86
8 Sholur 9745 77
9 Huligal 12960 74
10 Kethi 23229 74
11 Kilkunda 8886 77